In hmolscience, dating system refers to a method for chronologically ordering events in the framework of an epoch or an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.

The current Western hemisphere dating system—the epoch of the anno Domini calendar era—is religio-mythology based, namely epoch of the Christian era, in which the instant in time chosen as the origin is the birth of the fictional character Jesus Christ, a semi-anthropomorphized syncretism rewrite of the Egyptian godOsiris anointed”, the literal etymological translation of the former, of Anunian theology. Scientists and other discerning thinkers, subsequently, often have tended to take issues with this incongruent mode of dating; one example of which is shown below, the statement dated with three alternative dating system modes:

“I have dictated thirty pages on the world’s religions; and I have read the Bible. My own mind is made up. I do not think that Jesus Christ ever existed.”
Napoleon Bonaparte (1817 AD) (367 PE) (175 ME)

If, in short, Jesus never existed, which is the case, being that the story of the birth of Jesus is a re-telling of the story of the birth of Horus, then the dating of years presently is baseless, other than signifies years since the general start, plus or minus a century, of the Greco-Roman empire, after the fall of the 3100-year Egyptian dynasty.
Marcus Varro
In circa 50BC (or circa 703 AUC), Marcus Varro introduced the anno urbis conditae (AUC) or “from city founding” dating system, which dated years from the founding of Rome or 21 Apr 753BC (in Christian era years). [1] The AUC dating system, supposedly, came to be superseded, in usage, by the AD/BC dating system, invented in 525AD (1260AUC) by Roman monk Dionysius Exiguus, during the reign of Charlemagne (742-814). [2]

Kepler | Vulgar Era | CE
In c.1590, Johannes Kepler, age 19, was a student at the Lutheran-themed University of Tubingen, in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where under Michael Maestlin (Ѻ), a German astronomer and mathematician, he learned both the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system, during which time he became a Copernican.

In 1554, Kepler applied for a teaching position at Tubingen University, but in order to get the job, he had to appear before the theological faculty to test his adherence to Lutheran beliefs, but because he believed now believed in “heliocentric theory”, which had been condemned or categorized by Martin Luther in 1539 as “table talks”, he was barred from the position.

In Apr 1554, Kepler, rejected from his first choice, accepted a position of teacher of mathematics and astronomy at a Protestant school in Graz, Austria.

In 1599, the local Catholic Duke, decided to drive out all Lutherans from Graz, during which point Kepler almost lost his job, but was saved by some Jesuit priests, who had been interested in his astronomical ideas, who begged the Duke to let him stay.

In 1601, an opportunity arose for Kepler to go work with Tycho Brahe in Prague, Czech Republic.

In 1612, Kepler, move from Prague to Linz, Austria, where he taught astrology and astronomy at a district school, during which time he was excluded from Eucharist, owing to his astronomy-conflicting theology

In 1613, Kepler was excommunicated from the church because he believed that the moon was a solid body, which contradicted with Lutheran theologians who said that said that, according to the Bible, the moon is “lesser light to rule the night”, and hence was “light” and not a solid body. [7]

In 1613, Kepler published On the Year (De Vero Anno), an expanded treatise on the year of Christ’s birth.

This year he also participated deliberations on whether to introduce Pope Gregory's reformed calendar to Protestant German lands.

In 1613, Kepler penned New Stereometrics on Wine Barrel Dimensions (Nova Stereometria Doliorum Vinariorum) (Ѻ) a mathematical treatise on measuring the volume of containers such as wine barrels; which was published in 1615 (AD), the preface of which is dated by him as 1613 ACO, the abbreviation ACO meaning “Year of Western Christianity”, or something along these lines, or in the original Latin “Anno Christianorum Occidentalium M. DC. XIII”, where “M. DC. XIII” means 1000 + 600 + 13.

In 1615, Kepler’s mother Katharina Kepler (1546-1622) (Ѻ), then residing in the Protestant town of Leonberg, was arrested for and tried for “witchcraft”, along with 15 other women, 8 of whom were executed. She eventually was imprisoned, in the summer of 1620, for fourteen months. [8]

In 1615, Kepler, in his Mathematical Pastoral Chronology (Mathematici Eclogae Chronicae), a book of assembled correspondence with Seth Calvisius, Markus Gerstenberger, Johannes Deckers, and Herwart Hohemberg, on various chronological questions related to the time of Christ, which opens to the following table of contents:

1. Herodis Herodiadumque

2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4,

3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33.,

4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit *** Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum.
1. Herod (Ѻ) Herodiadumque

2. Baptism of Christ's ministry and no more than 2 1/4 years;

3. Passion, death and resurrection DN. No. Jesus Christ year of our popular era 31, not in the ordinary 33.,

4. The Jewish War, the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and is taken Old Testament. Among other diary and place Epiphanii-dark cycle of the ancient Jews.

The term Annus Aerae Nostrae Vulgaris, or “Annus [year] Aerae [era] Nostrae [of] Vulgaris [vulgar or popular]”, translates as Year of the Vulgar Era, or 1615 “VE” (vulgar era) in short. This “VE”, supposedly, by 1708, in English, became the forerunner to “common era” (CE), as found in the secular dating of BCE/CE used presently. [9]

The dating of Kepler's book seems to be the following:

Kepler (1615)

The phrase (+picture) “*** Priuilegio [picture] ad annos XV”, seems to translate as “with privileges [picture] year 15”.

In circa 1700, English physicist Isaac Newton, in incognito, would objectionably not label years as AD, but instead used AC (Anno Christum), signifying is objection to the argument of the existence of the trinity, namely his view that a person named Jesus may have existed, may have been the son of God, and may have been christened or arisen, but definitely was not the ‘Lord’ or God. [1]

In 1790, John Stewart seems to have invented his own unique god-free morality dating system, according to which dates the zero year to the "start of man's retrospective knowledge", which he deduces by astronomical calculations (similar to Thims; see below), to have occurred 5,000-years prior to the publication of his Treatise on the Source of Moral Motion and the Moral State of Nations, or in abbreviated full:

● Stewart, John. (1790). The Moral State of Nations: Travels Over the Most Interesting Parts of the Globe, to Discover the Source of Moral Motion; Communicated to Lead Mankind Through the Conviction of the Senses to Intellectual Existence, and an Enlightened State of Nature. In the Year of Man's Retrospective Knowledge, by Astronomical Calculation 5000. Year of the Common Era, 1790. George H. Evans, 1837.


French revolution | Secular calendar
In 1789, the French revolution began, during which time a considerable amount of Church property, in the form of French land and wealth, were seized for redistribution. On Jan 1793, the revolutionaries guillotined the king, and in Oct, of this year, the newly elected body, called the “Convention”, adopted a new secular calendar, calling 1792 year one, wherein months were 30 days long, divided into 3 ten-day weeks, each day called by its number, in place of the pagan god day of week namesakes. The calendar lasted until 1806, after which Napoleon Bonaparte brought back the Gregorian calendar. [5]

Thomas PainePaine
See main: Paine dating system
In 1802, Thomas Paine, in his letters to Elihu Palmer, was dating them as follows:

“Paris, February 21st, 1802, since the fable of Christ”


In 1923, Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) was dating letters “Year One of the Fascist Era”. [5]

In 1951, Isaac Asimov, American chemist turned science fiction writer, published the first of his Foundation, in which he introduces the socio-physical chemical prediction mathematician character “Hari Seldon”, born in the 10th month of the 11,988th year of the Galactic Era (GE) (-79 Foundation Era (FE)) and died 12,069 GE (1 FE).

In 1954, Joseph Needham spearheaded the multi-volume Science and Civilization in China, which went through 28-volumes, completed 2004, where a +/- notation system was employed; one example:

Ctesibius had been responsible, about -230, for a simple and fundamental machine, the piston air-pump, known from the descriptions of later mechanicians. This simplest of pumps entered upon a new incarnation in the +17th century, when the virtuosi began to explore with excitement the properties of vacuous spaces, for what had been invented originally as a bellows for pumping air into something now found fresh employment as the ‘air-pump’ for getting as much air as possible out of it.”
— Joseph Needham (1987), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5 (pg. 555) [6]


1450 | Before Print | Printing Era _ BP/PE
In 2012, American electrochemical engineer Libb Thims, in the overtly atheistic manuscript Purpose? (in a Godless universe), began to employ the “printing era” dating system, dating the modern era to years before or after 1450 the year of the invention of the printing press, throughout, using the abbreviations BP (before printing) and PE (printing era) in place of BC/AD dating method. [3] On 14 Apr 2013, the printing era BP/PE dating system was introduced online, namely into the Empedocles article, and thereafter into about 100 other articles. (Ѻ) This calendar system, to note has issues with it as some, e.g. in Mirza Beg publications, use the abbreviation "BP" and "PE" to mean "before present" and "present era", respectively.

Nicolaus Copernicus ns1543 | Before Copernicus | After Copernicus _ BP/AP
Some atheists, in recent years, of note, prefer to date years from the year of publication of Nicolas CopernicusOn the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs, which occurred (Ѻ) in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire; the following is an example statement of this:

“Excellent point. Personally, I prefer the Copernican dating system in which we count the number of years before and after the year of the publication of the De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (of course with the inclusion of a year 0, being the year of publication). In which case we live in the year 473 AP. Sadly not a lot of people know about this dating system so I am forced to use the BCE, CE system on occasion.”
— AlwaysUnite (2016), Reddit message to Libb Thims, Oct 4

The Copernican dating system was used in a lecture by Dutch atheism campaigning philosopher Floris van den Berg. (Ѻ)

This is a reasonable dating system, being that many often tend to date this year to the start of the history of science, one example being John Gribbin’s 2002 tome Science: a History 1543-2001. Three downsides of this dating system, however, are (a) firstly the lack of easy of quick on-the-go mental calculation, e.g. 2016 CE = 473 AP [Anno Publication] or 2016 – 1543 = 473, say as compared to the Goethean dating system, where 2016 CE = 266 AG [Anno Goethe] or 2016 – 1750 = 266 or 250 + 16 = 266, as quickly done in the mind; (b) that 1543 isn’t necessarily the start of heliocentrism, as supposedly it was previously advanced by Philolaus (c.399BC), Aristarchus (250BC), and promoted by Hypatia (400AD), but rather it is the second wave of new data based idea pressure that was able to push through the barricaded resistance of older religious ideological pressure; (c) it is pre Julian calendar to Gregorian calendar correction switch years.

Isaac Newton new1642 | Before Newton | Anno Newton _ BN/AN
On 23 Nov 2013, the alternative “modern era”, using the abbreviations BN (before Newton) and AN (Anno Newton) or ME (modern era) dating system, dating the epoch to the birth of Isaac Newton, began to be used online, first introduced in the Isaac Newton article.

1642 [the year of Newton’s birth] is the Christmas of the modern age.”
— Johann Goethe (c.1810), Publication

This dating system was devised in tribute quotation form circa 1610 by Johann Goethe, per above quote, was implemented online in Hmolpedia on 23 Nov 2013 by Libb Thims, slowly coming into test stage use in the following year.

This Newtonian or “modern era” calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth (reaction synthesis) of Isaac Newton, with AN “Anno Newton” or ME “Modern Era” counting years from the start of this epoch, and BN denoting years before the start of the era.

This dating system has some subtle issue with, in regards to the date of Newton's birth (reaction synthesis) and death (reaction end), is that modern era dating will vary according to whether one uses the Julian calender system (older calender) or the Gregorian calendar system (modern calender), a transition that occurred, depending on country, during the years 1582 to 1752: [6]

Newton (Old System, Julian calendar) reaction existence: 25 Dec 1642 – 20 Mar 1726
Newton (New System, Gregorian calendar) reaction existence: 4 Jan 1643 – 31 Mar 1727

Using Newton's birth (4 Jan 1643) one can calculate the modern era date using on online date calculator, specifically a "date duration calculator" (Ѻ), as found at

Johann Goethe ns1750 | Before Goethe | Anno Goethe _ BG/AG
An alternative dating system, suggested by Ralph Emerson (1852), is the BG/AG dating system:

“All before Goethe are ancients, and all who have read him are modern.”
Ralph Emerson (1852), commentary on Margaret Fuller [4]

This Goethean “modern era” calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth (reaction synthesis) of Johann Goethe (28 Aug 1749), with AG “Anno Goethe” counting years from the start of this epoch, and BG denoting years before the start of the era.

In this scheme, the tentative placement of the “zero year”, or 0 AG, in round-off time (discarding 4-months and 3.5-days, per round off), would be the the year 1 Jan 1750 to 31 Dec 1750. Hence, someone born (synthesized) in the year 2000 (in Christian era years) would be born in the year 250 AG (2000 minus 1750) in Goethe era calendar years; whereas someone born in the year 1748 would be born in the year 1 BG (1749 minus 1748) in Goethean calender years. The BG/AG dating system was first tested out on 21 Jul 2014 in the Libb Thims article.

1948 | Before Cybernetics | After Cybernetics _ BC/AC
In 1953, American economist Herbert Simon was referring to BC as “before cybernetics” as follows:

“In the era BC (before cybernetics) it [Elements of Physical Biology] was an important source of education and encouragement for few souls who had gleam in their eyes about the prospective mathematization of the social sciences. It had a substantial influence on Henry Schultz and Paul Samuelson, and, I am sure, many others besides myself. As a matter of fact, most of the ideas of [Norbert] Wiener emphasizes—for example, the relation of entropy to organizational behavior—can be found in Lotka, and I have felt some annoyance at the lack of recognition of the latter’s contributions.”

This one has issues with it as one either date BC to the year 1948 (Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine), as the above usage suggests, the year 1834 (Andre Ampere, Essay on the Philosophy of Science), or, as some will argue, date the term back to the works of Plato, depending.

Atomic Dating System
In 2020, Libb Thims began to employ an "atomic dating system" system (BA/AE), the zero year being 1955, when atoms were first seen by the human eye, thus dating years as either "before atoms" (BA) or "atomic era" (AE) or after atoms.

The following are related quotes:

“Written in the land of the living; on the right bank of the Adige, in Verona, in the year of that god whom you never knew the 1345th.”
— Petrarch (1345), signoff to a letter; compare: Goethean calendar [1]

“When referencing dates based on the approximate birth of Jesus, give appropriate credit for the basis of the date (B.C. or A.D.). "BCE" and "CE" are unacceptable substitutes because they deny the historical basis—i.e. they are anti-Christian. See CEExternal link icon (c).”
— Benjamin S. (2006), Conservapedia, Commandments (Ѻ)

“10 Jul 2014? Nah. The Christian Calendar is disgustingly deleterious.”
— NikolaTesla (2014), post #58 in the Beg-Thims discussion

1. Gleick, James. (2003). Isaac Newton (pg.112). Vintage Books.
2. (a) Simon, Herbert. (1953). “Letter to Howard Cirker of Dover Publications”, Aug 31, Box 5, ff. 202.
(b) Crowther-Heyck, Hunter. (2005). Herbert A. Simon: the Bounds in Modern America (pg. 66). JHU Press.
3. Thims, Libb. (2011). Purpose? (in a Godless universe). (94-pg manuscript) (unfinished); pdf online as 105-page unfinished manuscript (14 Apr 2013). IoHT publications.
4. (a) Tantillo, Astradia O. (2010). Goethe’s Modernisms (pg. 1). Continuum International Publishing Group.
(b) Fuller, Margaret. (1852). Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Volume 1 (editors: William Channing, Ralph Emerson, and James Clarke) (§:Emerson, Channing and Clarke, pg. 242-43) . Phillips, Sampson and Co.
(c) Maas, Christel-Maria. (2006). Margaret Fuller's transnational project: self-education, feminine culture and American national literature on the German model (Margaret Fullers transnationales Projekt: Selbstbildung, feminine Kultur und amerikanische Nationalliteratur nach deutschem Vorbild) (pg. 63). University of Göttingen Publisher.
5. Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (Napoleon, pg. 368; Mussolini, pg. 433). HarperOne.
6. (a) Science and Civilisation in China – Wikipedia.
(b) Needham, Joseph. (1987). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic (pg. 563). Cambridge.
7. Mullan, Dermott. (2003). “Excommunicated for Scientific Beliefs” (Ѻ), National Catholic Register, Nov 30.
8. Linz and elsewhere (1612-1630) [section] – Wikipedia.
9. (a) Kepler, Johannes. (1615). Mathematical Pastoral Chronology (Mathematici Eclogae Chronicae). Publisher.
(b) Caspar, Max. (2012). Kepler (pg. 208). Courier.
(c) Coolman, Robert. (2014). “Keeping Time: the Origin of BC and AD” (Ѻ),, May 12.
(d) Common Era – Wikipedia.

External links
Calendar era – Wikipedia.
Common Era – Wikipedia.
Epoch (reference date) – Wikipedia.

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