|The Libet experiment (1982): the time at which an EEG signal indicating brain activation for movement occurs is set as zero time, the reported time of awareness of intention to push the button is about 350 milliseconds (0.35 seconds) later, and the actual EKG, the voltage in the finger muscle doing the push, happens about 200 milliseconds later than that.|
“Cerebral initiation of a spontaneous, freely voluntary act can begin unconsciously, that is, before there is any (at least recallable) subjective awareness that a ‘decision’ to act has already been initiated cerebrally.”
“I think Libet’s reasoning was clearly flawed, as there is every reason to think that a conscious veto must also arise on the basis of unconscious neural events.”
“The only thing which can be directly perceived by the senses is force, to which may be reduced to light, heat, electricity, sound and all the other things which can be perceived by the senses.”
“Every force tends to give motion to the body on which it acts; but it may be prevented from doing so by other opposing forces, so that equilibrium results, and the body remains at rest. In this case the force performs no work. But as soon as the body moves under the influence of the force, work is performed.”This is logic is based in French physicist Gustave Coriolis’ 1829 principle of the transmission of work which mathematically quantifies every movement as a type of work derived by a force.
|University College London neuroscience researcher Patrick Haggard discussing Libet’s experiment.|