bosonsGauge bosons
Representations of bosons or Gauge bosons. [6] A Higgs boson of mass ≈125 GeV has been tentatively confirmed by CERN on 14 March 2013, although unclear as yet which model the particle best supports or whether multiple Higgs bosons exist
In particles, boson, as contrasted with fermion, is an elementary particle, with integer spin (1, 2, etc.), which conforms to Bose-Einstein statistics. [1]

Bosons are particles that make up what is usually conceptualized the as the transmission of forces, e.g. the photon carries the electromagnetic force. Photons are not conserved, e.g. photons are created in billions when a light switch is turned on, and disappear when they are absorbed by photons. [2]

The term “boson”, named in honor of Indian physicist Satyendra Bose (1894-1974), was coined by English theoretical physicist Paul Dirac (1902-1984), during his 6 Dec 1945 lecture “Developments in Atomic Theory”, referring to quantum particles that obey laws set out by German-born American physicist Albert Einstein and Bose. [3]

The following are related quotes:

“Are humans fermions or bosons?”
Ed Stephan (1977), speculative discussions with physicist Louis Barrett [4]

“All entities, whether fermions or humans, need some mediating agency to interconnect them into systems. This indispensable interrelating and interacting role is ultimately played by different field particles named bosons. Unlike fermions, which are characterized by a significant mass and charge, bosons do not take partake of these to attributes. Rather, they only have spins and provide connections as they are exchanged among fermions.”
Paris Arnopoulos (1995), Sociophysics [5]

Bosons are red
Mesons are blue
I like to classify
Hadrons with you
— Anon (c.2012)

1. Daintith, John. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Physics. Oxford University Press.
2. Gribbin, John. (1998). Q is for Quantum: An Encyclopedia of Particle Physics (fermion, pgs. 113). Simon & Schuster.
3. (a) Dirac, Paul. (1945). “Developments in Atomic Theory”, Le Palais de la Decouverte, Dec 6.
(b) Farmelo, Graham. (2009). The Strangest Man: the Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom (pg. 331). Basic Books.
4. Stephan, Ed. (1995). The Division of Territory in Society.
5. Arnopoulos, Paris. (2005). Sociophysics: Cosmos and Chaos in Nature and Culture (fermions or humans, pg. xIviii). Nova Publishers, 1993 first edition.
6. Rees, Martin. (2005). Universe (pg. 31). DK Publishing.

External links
‚óŹ Boson – Wikipedia.

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